Set 331 in 55 overs, Marnus Labuschagne with 85 from 87 balls and Sam Northeast’s 81 off 101 balls put Glamorgan on course before fast bowler Ryan Sidebottom raised Derbyshire’s victory hopes with 4 for 50.
Sidebottom removed Northeast to reduce Glamorgan to 308 for 8 but James Harris and Timm van der Gugten, batting with a runner after picking up a hamstring injury, held on for the draw.
Derbyshire wicketkeeper Brooke Guest had earlier scored his second century of the game while Wayne Madsen also scored an unbeaten 135, sharing a third wicket stand of 276 with Guest before Derbyshire declared on 349 for 3 when Guest was caught behind down the leg side, leaving Glamorgan to score at more than six an over to achieve victory.
Derbyshire took only four balls to get their first wicket with Salter falling to a superb diving catch by Leus du Plooy at third slip off Suranga Lakmal.
Labuschagne twice drove off-spinner Alex Thomson for six on his way to a 49 ball 50, while Lloyd was one away from a half-century when he played across the line at Sidebottom and was lbw, Sidebottom also then taking Labuschagne’s wicket.
Kiran Carlson’s 37 from 35 balls and Chris Cooke with 32 from 25 gave Glamorgan the momentum but when Northeast drove Sidebottom to third man in the penultimate over with 23 still needed, Glamorgan called off the chase with both teams taking 14 points after an enthralling final day,
Derbyshire's head of cricket Mickey Arthur said: "It was a great final day of cricket. To be honest, when we made the declaration I didn't expect us to be in the position we were at the back end.
"It's been a wonderful game for us for so many reasons with the bat but I do feel our skills with the ball and crucial catches let us down."
On Brooke Guest's twin hundreds he said: "It's testimony to how hard he's worked. I remember arriving here in January and Brooke was the first guy I saw in the net every morning and he wanted the role, he wanted to be batting number three. He's got his just rewards for the efforts he's put in."