The left-sided centre-back joins on a free transfer.
The 26-year-old made 51 appearances for the Daggers between 2019 and 2021 before being let go in the summer.
His last season at Dagenham was hampered by injuries but he was highly thought of.
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Croll started his career at Crystal Palace and spent two years at Exeter City between 2017 and 2019.
In total he has made more than 100 appearances in the National League and League Two.
Croll’s arrival will help boost Chesterfield’s defensive ranks with Gavin Gunning, Laurence Maguire, George Carline and Haydn Hollis all out injured.
Hollis and Carline are not expected to return until the latter part of the season.
Gunning (broken nose and fractured eye socket) and Maguire (calf) will be out for between six and eight weeks, according to manager James Rowe.
Rowe said he had been ‘actively looking’ in the transfer market this week.