The Spireites found themselves two-nil down after 20 minutes but they fought back thanks to Jeff King’s superb free-kick and Kabongo Tshimanga’s 22nd goal of the season.
But Josh Kelly grabbed his second goal of the game late on to put the hosts back ahead and inflict just Town’s second loss of the campaign and end their 12-match unbeaten league run.
The defeat leaves them second, one point behind leaders Halifax, with a game in hand.
On the performance, Rowe said: “Appalling, shocking. It was not good enough.
"We did not turn up in the first-half, didn’t want it. We were second to everything.
"We had most of the territory (in the second-half) and really we should have done more with the chances we had.”
Rowe said there was a ‘lack of leadership’ and that at the very least they should ensure they did not lose the game.
He explained: "They go to a 4-5-1, as a home team, to block it off at 2-2, you don’t expect to lose the game. But, to be honest, it has been creeping in. We don’t get first and second contacts which was happening all evening and they get a flick-on from the corner and he has headed it in from a yard.
"They (Maidenhead) probably settled for a draw the way the second-half was going. We have got enough experience out there not to lose it. I thought that was the evening really, there was a lack of leadership out there which I am shocked about.
"We showed character to come back to 2-2, we were in the ascendancy, everyone in the stadium could feel it, we were hoping for a third goal but at worst you don’t lose it and we lost it.
"We have got to take our medicine today and say well done to Maidenhead because they have been in rough form but their form has picked up and they have backed it up tonight.
"For us, we were way off it, I need to reflect and have a look at the game again. Obviously emotions are running high at the moment.”
The night also threw up another potential injury, with Jim Kellermann coming off at half-time with a twisted hip.
Akwasi Asante did not start because it was felt it was too much for him after his long injury lay-off.
Rowe now wants to see a reaction against Aldershot on Saturday.
He added: "Since the last defeat, this is the 13th game, I think we have got 28-29 points which is an impressive return.
"We have got to stick together. There is going to be some more adversity along the way to the end destination. We knew that. We obviously don’t like it but we have got to react like we did against Woking.
"I am sure we can do it again and I am sure the supporters will be right behind the team on Saturday. We come together and we make sure we get the three points at home and put this right.”