The 29-year-old’s departure from the Blues was confirmed earlier this week.
Carline, who missed a large chunk of last season with a serious knee injury, was offered the chance to train with Chesterfield this summer despite being out of contract.
But Chesterfield’s Player of the Year in 2021 has now moved on to Brackley, who finished second last season, missing out on promotion in the play-offs.
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Carline, who was a popular figure and regularly chipped in with goals and assists, posted on Twitter earlier this week: “Thank you to everyone associated with @ChesterfieldFC.
"I'm proud to have represented your club, I just wish I could have played in front of you incredible fans more than I did.
"Finally, a huge thanks must go to all the staff and players who have helped me get back to fitness.”
Brackley start their season at home to Scarborough Athletic this Saturday.