Derbyshire County Council has been given cash by the Government to close Corporation Street and South Place – and has already closed Crow Lane between the train station and Chesterfield Royal Hospital.
The plans have been criticised by opposition politicians who say they cannot understand some of the measures being taken.
Derbyshire County Council’s cabinet member for highways, transport and infrastructure, Councillor Simon Spencer, said: “We’ve received £443,000 from the Government to put social distancing measures and encourage cycling and walking into town and village centres across the county.
“We are putting some sort of measure into over 40 different locations.
“In Chesterfield we have closed off Corporation Street to allow a safe socially distanced walking route from the train station into the town.
“South Place has been closed off to make more space for people to walk from Ravenside retail park into the town. And we’ve closed off Crow Lane to allow a safe cycling route to the hospital.
“We’ve worked very closely with Chesterfield Borough Council on everything we’ve done.”
Coun Keith Falconer, Liberal Democrat councillor for Holmebrook, said: “Some advice has been issued to local authorities on reallocating road space to encourage cycling/walking and to enable social distancing.
“But I find it difficult to see closing Corporation Street or South Place fall into these categories. I must be missing something.”
Coun Falconer said local authorities have been urged by the Government to make significant changes to their road layouts to give more space to cyclists and pedestrians.
“But I don’t see evidence of this in Chesterfield despite the fact that it is the largest market town in the county,” he said.
“Is this not time for some blue sky thinking from Derbyshire County Council?
“Encouraging walking and cycling to school, for example through the introduction of ‘school streets’ where traffic is limited during drop off and pick up times.
“Introducing 20mph speed limits as an appropriate speed limit for residential roads, and through streets in built-up areas.
“Or trialling a bike hire scheme or supporting the introduction of e-bikes.”