The proposed scheme could see underpasses built at the Kingsway and Markeaton islands and a flyover installed at Little Eaton.
A Highways England spokesman said: "The Kingsway, Markeaton and Little Eaton junctions on the A38 currently suffer from heavy congestion.
"We are making improvements to these junctions to relieve this congestion."
The spokesman added: "We will now continue our work looking more closely at the local area, completing our surveys and investigations to help finalise the preliminary design of the scheme in greater detail.
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"There will then be a further period of statutory public consultation later this year, when we ask you for your views on this more detailed design before we seek planning approval through the submission of an application for a Development Consent Order under the Planning Act 2008.
"We will work with the local authorities to shape this consultation to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to have their say."
It is hoped the planned project would be completed by September 2024.
For more information, visit the Highways England website.