The crime happened at the Central England Co-operative on Chesterfield Road in Duckmanton just before 4am this morning – leaving a scene of devastation.
The JCB was used to lift the cashpoint away from the wall and into a getaway vehicle.
A Derbyshire police spokesman said that a white Vauxhall Vivaro which had its roof cut off and the ATM were later found near Buttermilk Lane in Bolsover.
The spokesman said: “We’re appealing for witnesses to the crime or anyone in the area who has CCTV to call us on 101.
“It’s believed several vehicles were involved and it’s understood the offenders made off on the M1.
“We’re currently making enquiries to find out if they went north or south.”
Police have cordoned off the scene.
The site remains closed until further notice.
A source from Derbyshire police said crime scene investigators are being hindered by the dangerous environment of the caved-in ceiling and hanging electricity cables.
He added: “We can’t do anything until the structural engineer and electrician get here.”
Trev Stanley, 62, a gardener who was working along Chesterfield Road, said: “It’s a right mess. There’s never been anything like that around here before to my knowledge.”