Rowley, 23, was released by the Spireites at the end of the season after eight years at the club.
The attacking midfielder has signed a one-year deal, with the Coasters having another option to extend his stay in their favour.
He will officially become a Fylde player when his Town contract expires on July 1.
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Rowe said: “Joe is obviously a player that I know very well. He was unlucky not to have featured more predominantly under my management in the past two seasons, after unfortunately suffering a few badly-timed injuries.
“He knows he will get a plan here and specific coaching to further develop his game. It is purely about fulfilling his undoubted potential here at AFC Fylde.”
Rowley said he was ‘buzzing’ to get the deal sorted.
"When I got the call off the gaffer it was an easy decision for me,” he added.
“The best thing for me right now is a fresh start, and I can’t wait to get going and play for Fylde and show the fans what I can do.”