The 22-year-old has been on loan at King’s Lynn Town and he was stretchered off during the second-half of their FA Cup tie against Peterborough Sports on Saturday with a suspected broken leg.
Rowley was playing his last game for the Linnets after being recalled from his loan spell by the Spireites the day before.
He had been recalled because of the rising number of injuries in the Chesterfield squad.
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Rowley has impressed everyone at King’s Lynn with his performances and Town manager James Rowe had been watching him closely.
He had been due to stay at the Norfolk club until at least January.
The Spireites said in a social media update on Sunday: “Nic Brink, our head of sports science and medicine, has been advised that an X-ray on the problem ankle has not revealed a fracture. Joe will return to the club where the injury will be fully assessed.”
Speaking after Chesterfield’s 4-0 win against Curzon Ashton in the FA Cup on Saturday, Rowe said: "It does not get any better, our luck, because he has just been called back.
"I called him back yesterday (Friday) afternoon, this was his last game for King’s Lynn.
"Our thoughts are with him and his family, we hope he is okay.
"That is the luck we are getting at the moment, you couldn’t write it could you?
"I have been monitoring his performances, he was looking fitter and stronger and was ready to come back.
"That has put a cloud over what has been a great day for us.”