A fourth platform could be built at Chesterfield train station as part of multi-million pound work.
The proposal has been outlined in a Network Rail report which sets out its long-term vision for services in the East Midlands.
Network Rail says a fourth platform would enable extra trains to carry more passengers between Derby and Chesterfield stations.
It would also allow trains to travel faster, removing the present constraint caused by stopping and non-stop services passing through Chesterfield on a single line.
Track and signalling work could also be carried out at the busy town station.
The total cost of the proposed work would be up to £20million.
Erica Blamire, principal strategic planner at Network Rail, said: "It is an exciting time for rail in the East Midlands."